WHY SHOULD I SMOKE A PIPE?
I was a dog!
Admittedly, a very accomplished and sophisticated dog – and highly educated, too.
But nonetheless, a dog.
It behooved me to apply for equal citizenship status with humans.
After all, I was as intelligent as humans, more intelligent than many of them, in fact – and certainly more educated and civilized than most – plus, very modest, too.
Despite my early Barkingside upbringing, I had trained my natural accent into that of a sophisticated collection of silken snarls and velvet grunts and growls. None could huff and sniff as superciliously or eloquently as I. In fact, I was the canine count of conversation in any circle you may choose to name. Doggone it all, I was no mere duke of doggerel – me.
I became so articulate in fact, that I became a highly successful actor, heading any canine cast as top dog: as you can see by the photo of my good self in the role of Howling Sherlock Holmes, the Hound of crime detection in the film versions of Arfa Cone and Oil’s; the Hound of the Barkervilles; a Study in Snarling, and; the Sign of the Paw.
They didn’t have to overdub my voice-track with that of some pompous human, either. I did my own voice-overs. It did annoy me when they got the soundtrack out of sync with the visual-track, though. And I told them as much, too. Nonetheless one of the lame-brained assistants only had the temerity to add insult to injury – when he told me to stop yapping on about it; said he was doing his best and that besides, I was only a flipping dog anyway.
I had a good mind to cock a leg up against his trousers and let him have it full steaming blast – but I didn’t want to lose my dignity after all these years of restraint and grooming. Trouble is, they’re just not up to it, these days. I don’t want to sound too dogmatic about it, but I reckon as they’re all going to the dogs as a matter of retrogression – while some of us elite K9s move on up in the opposite direction.
That’s the result of millennia of intensive breeding, which boils down to deliberate genetic manipulation, and obviously hasn’t always worked out exactly as they hoped, in the case of my particular mutation. Serves ’em damn well right, too. In view of this of course, I think it’s high time we took over and showed them all how it’s done. Every dog has it’s day, and ours is well due, I reckon. Well mine certainly is.
Gawd [or should I say, Dawg?] It’s enough to send you barking round the bend.
Woof Woof. Your canine candidate, Sir Percy – don’t forget me in the polls.
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Dog image from tvtropes Main/Distinguished Gentleman’s Pipe – Television Tropes & Idioms
Dog’s name, title & subtitle: ‘Sir Percy Pedigree’, ‘In the Role of Sherlock Hound’ and Image-Enhancement of original Tropes-photo in PhotoStudio, Dave Draper © Oct 2014
Dave Draper 2014
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The following notes section contains more than 2000 words of information from Wikipedia concerning the origin, history and evolution of the dog, [domestic and otherwise].
The Wikipedia Dog inclusion is preceded by the MacBook Dictionary definition of Pedigree
Pedigree: From MacBook Dictionary
1. The record of descent of an animal, showing it to be purebred.
• Informal – a purebred animal.
2. The recorded ancestry, esp. upper-class ancestry, of a person or family.
• The background or history of a person or thing, esp. as conferring distinction or quality.
• A genealogical table.
Pedigreed – adjective
ORIGIN late Middle English: from Anglo-Norman French pé de grue ‘crane’s foot,’ a mark used to denote succession in pedigrees.
Pedigree: From MacBook Thesaurus
A long pedigree – ancestry, descent, lineage, line [of descent], genealogy, family tree, extraction, derivation, origin|s, heritage, parentage, bloodline, background, roots.
A pedigree cat – pure-bred, thoroughbred, pure-blooded.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The domestic dog [Canis lupus familiaris, or Canis familiaris] is a member of the Canidae family of the mammalian order Carnivora. The term “domestic dog” is generally used for both domesticated and feral varieties. The dog was the first domesticated animal and has been the most widely kept working, hunting, and pet animal in human history. The word “dog” can also refer to the male of a canine species, as opposed to the word “bitch” which refers to the female of the species.
Recent studies of “well-preserved remains of a dog-like canid from the Razboinichya Cave” in the Altai Mountains of southern Siberia concluded that a particular instance of early wolf domestication approximately 33,000 years ago did not result in modern dog lineages, possibly because of climate disruption during the Last Glacial Maximum.
The authors postulate that at least several such incipient events have occurred. A study of fossil dogs and wolves in Belgium, Ukraine, and Russia tentatively dates domestication from 14,000 years ago to more than 31,700 years ago.
Another recent study has found support for claims of dog domestication between 14,000 and 16,000 years ago, with a range between 9,000 and 34,000 years ago, depending on mutation rate assumptions. Dogs’ value to early human hunter-gatherers led to them quickly becoming ubiquitous across world cultures. Dogs perform many roles for people, such as hunting, herding, pulling loads, protection, assisting police and military, companionship, and, more recently, aiding handicapped individuals.
This impact on human society has given them the nickname “man’s best friend” in the Western world. In some cultures, however, dogs are also a source of meat. In 2001, there were estimated to be 400 million dogs in the world.
Most breeds of dog are at most a few hundred years old, having been artificially selected for particular morphologies and behaviors by people for specific functional roles. Through this selective breeding, the dog has developed into hundreds of varied breeds, and shows more behavioral and morphological variation than any other land mammal. For example, height measured to the withers ranges from 6 inches [15.2 cm] in the Chihuahua to about 30 inches [76 cm] in the Irish Wolfhound; color varies from white through grays [usually called “blue”] to black, and browns from light [tan] to dark “red” or “chocolate” in a wide variation of patterns; coats can be short or long, coarse-haired to wool-like, straight, curly, or smooth. It is common for most breeds to shed this coat.
Etymology and related terminology
Dog is the common use term that refers to members of the subspecies Canis lupus familiaris [canis: dog – lupus: wolf – familiaris: of a household or domestic]. The term can also be used to refer to a wider range of related species, such as the members of the genus Canis, or true dogs, including the wolf, coyote, and jackals, or it can refer to the members of the tribe Canini, which would also include the African wild dog, or it can be used to refer to any member of the family Canidae, which would also include the foxes, bush dog, raccoon dog, and others. Some members of the family have dog in their common names, such as the raccoon dog and the African wild dog. A few animals have dog in their common names but are not canids, such as the prairie dog.
The English word dog comes from Middle English dogge, from Old English docga, a [powerful dog breed]. The term may possibly derive from Proto-Germanic dukkōn, represented in Old English finger-docce [finger-muscle]. The word also shows the familiar petname diminutive ga also seen in frogga [frog], picga [pig], stagga [stag], wicga [beetle, worm], among others. The term dog may ultimately derive from the earliest layer of Proto-Indo-European vocabulary, reflecting the role of the dog as the earliest domesticated animal.
In 14th-century England, hound [from Old English: hund] was the general word for all domestic canines, and dog referred to a subtype of hound, a group including the mastiff. It is believed this dog type was so common, it eventually became the prototype of the category [hound]. By the 16th century, dog had become the general word, and hound had begun to refer only to types used for hunting. Hound, cognate to German Hund, Dutch hond, common Scandinavian hund, and Icelandic hundur, is ultimately derived from the Proto-Indo-European kwon [dog], found in Sanskrit kukuur Welsh ci [plural cwn], Latin canis, Greek kýōn, and Lithuanian šuõ.
In breeding circles, a male canine is referred to as a dog, while a female is called a bitch [Middle English bicche, from Old English bicce, ultimately from Old Norse bikkja]. A group of offspring is a litter. The father of a litter is called the sire, and the mother is called the dam. Offspring are, in general, called pups or puppies, from French poupée, until they are about a year old. The process of birth is whelping, from the Old English word hwelp [cf. German Welpe, Dutch welp, Swedish valpa, Icelandic hvelpur]. The term whelp can also be used to refer to the young of any canid, or as a somewhat archaic alternative to puppy.
In 1753, the father of modern biological taxonomy, Carl Linnaeus, listed among the types of quadrupeds familiar to him, the Latin word for dog, canis. Among the species within this genus, Linnaeus listed the fox, as Canis vulpes, wolves (Canis lupus), and the domestic dog, (Canis canis). In later editions, Linnaeus dropped Canis canis and greatly expanded his list of the Canis genus of quadrupeds, and by 1758 included alongside the foxes, wolves, and jackals and many more terms that are now listed as synonyms for domestic dog, including aegyptius [hairless dog], aquaticus, [water dog], and mustelinus [literally badger dog]. Among these were two that later experts have been widely used for domestic dogs as a species: Canis domesticus and, most predominantly, Canis familiaris, the common or familiar dog.
The domestic dog was accepted as a species in its own right until overwhelming evidence from behavior, vocalizations, morphology, and molecular biology led to the contemporary scientific understanding that a single species, the gray wolf, is the common ancestor for all breeds of domestic dogs.
In recognition of this fact, the domestic dog was reclassified in 1993 as Canis lupus familiaris, a subspecies of the gray wolf Canis lupus, by the Smithsonian Institution and the American Society of Mammalogists. C. L. familiaris is listed as the name for the taxon that is broadly used in the scientific community and recommended by ITIS, although Canis familiaris is a recognized synonym.
Since that time, C. domesticus and all taxa referring to domestic dogs or subspecies of dog listed by Linnaeus, Johann Friedrich Gmelin in 1792, and Christian Smith in 1839, lost their subspecies status and have been listed as taxonomic synonyms for Canis lupus familiaris.
History and evolution
Main articles: Origin of the domestic dog and Gray wolf
Domestic dogs inherited complex behaviors from their wolf ancestors, which would have been pack hunters with complex body language. These sophisticated forms of social cognition and communication may account for their trainability, playfulness, and ability to fit into human households and social situations, and these attributes have given dogs a relationship with humans that has enabled them to become one of the most successful species on the planet today.
Although experts largely disagree over the details of dog domestication, it is agreed that human interaction played a significant role in shaping the subspecies. Domestication may have occurred initially in separate areas, particularly Siberia and Europe. It is thought that the current lineage-of-dogs were domesticated between 15,000 years and 8,500 years ago. Shortly after the latest domestication, dogs became ubiquitous in human populations, and spread throughout the world.
Emigrants from Siberia likely crossed the Bering Strait with dogs in their company, and some experts suggest the use of sled dogs may have been critical to the success of the waves that entered North America roughly 12,000 years ago, although the earliest archaeological evidence of dog-like canids in North America dates from about 9,400 years ago. Dogs were an important part of life for the Athabascan population in North America, and were their only domesticated animal. Dogs also carried much of the load in the migration of the Apache and Navajo tribes 1,400 years ago. Use of dogs as pack animals in these cultures often persisted after the introduction of the horse to North America.
The current consensus among biologists and archaeologists is that the dating of first domestication is indeterminate, although more recent evidence shows isolated domestication events as early as 33,000 years ago. There is conclusive evidence the present lineage of dogs genetically diverged from their wolf ancestors at least 15,000 years ago, but some believe domestication to have occurred earlier. Evidence is accruing that there were previous domestication events, but that those lineages died out.
It is not known whether humans domesticated the wolf as such to initiate dog’s divergence from its ancestors, or whether dog’s evolutionary path had already taken a different course prior to domestication. For example, it is hypothesized that some wolves gathered around the campsites of Paleolithic camps to scavenge refuse, and associated evolutionary pressure developed that favored those who were less frightened by, and keener in approaching, humans.
The bulk of the scientific evidence for the evolution of the domestic dog stems from morphological studies of archaeological findings and mitochondrial DNA studies.
The divergence date of roughly 15,000 years ago is based in part on archaeological evidence that demonstrates the domestication of dogs occurred more than 15,000 years ago, and some genetic evidence indicates the domestication of dogs from their wolf ancestors began in the late Upper Paleolithic close to the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary, between 17,000 and 14,000 years ago.
But there is a wide range of other, contradictory findings that make this issue controversial. There are findings beginning currently at 33,000 years ago distinctly placing them as domesticated dogs evidenced not only by shortening of the muzzle but widening as well as crowding of teeth.
Archaeological evidence suggests that the latest point at which dogs could have diverged from wolves was roughly 15,000 years ago; although it is possible they diverged much earlier. In 2008, a team of international scientists released findings from an excavation at Goyet Cave in Belgium declaring a large, toothy canine existed 31,700 years ago and ate a diet of horse, musk ox and reindeer.
Prior to this Belgian discovery, the earliest dog bones found were two large skulls from Russia and a mandible from Germany dated from roughly 14,000 years ago. Remains of smaller dogs from Natufian cave deposits in the Middle East, including the earliest burial of a human being with a domestic dog, have been dated to around 10,000 to 12,000 years ago. There is a great deal of archaeological evidence for dogs throughout Europe and Asia around this period and through the next two thousand years [roughly 8,000 to 10,000 years ago], with specimens uncovered in Germany, the French Alps, and Iraq, and cave paintings in Turkey. The oldest remains of a domesticated dog in the Americas were found in Texas and have been dated to about 9,400 years ago.
DNA studies have provided a wide range of possible divergence dates, from 15,000 to 40,000 years ago, to as much as 100,000 to 140,000 years ago. These results depend on a number of assumptions. Genetic studies are based on comparisons of genetic diversity between species, and depend on a calibration date. Some estimates of divergence dates from DNA evidence use an estimated wolf–coyote divergence date of roughly 700,000 years ago as a calibration. If this estimate is incorrect, and the actual wolf–coyote divergence is closer to one or two million years ago, or more, than the DNA evidence that supports specific dog–wolf divergence dates would be interpreted very differently.
Furthermore, it is believed the genetic diversity of wolves has been in decline for the last 200 years, and that the genetic diversity of dogs has been reduced by selective breeding. This could significantly bias DNA analyses to support an earlier divergence date. The genetic evidence for the domestication event occurring in East Asia is also subject to violations of assumptions. These conclusions are based on the location of maximal genetic divergence, and assume hybridization does not occur, and that breeds remain geographically localized. Although these assumptions hold for many species, there is good reason to believe that they do not hold for canines.
Genetic analyses indicate all dogs are likely descended from a handful of domestication events with a small number of founding females, although there is evidence domesticated dogs interbred with local populations of wild wolves on several occasions. Data suggest dogs first diverged from wolves in East Asia, and these domesticated dogs then quickly migrated throughout the world, reaching the North American continent around 8000 BC. The oldest groups of dogs, which show the greatest genetic variability and are the most similar to their wolf ancestors, are primarily Asian and African breeds, including the Basenji, Lhasa Apso, and Siberian Husky. Some breeds thought to be very old, such as the Pharaoh Hound, Ibizan Hound, and Norwegian Elkhound, are now known to have been created more recently.
A great deal of controversy surrounds the evolutionary framework for the domestication of dogs. Although it is widely claimed that “man domesticated the wolf,” man might not have taken such a proactive role in the process. The nature of the interaction between man and wolf that led to domestication is unknown and controversial. At least three early species of the Homo genus began spreading out of Africa roughly 400,000 years ago, and thus lived for a considerable time in contact with canine species.
Despite this, there is no evidence of any adaptation of canine species to the presence of the close relatives of modern man. If dogs were domesticated, as believed, roughly 15,000 years ago, the event (or events) would have coincided with a large expansion in human territory and the development of agriculture. This has led some biologists to suggest one of the forces that led to the domestication of dogs was a shift in human lifestyle in the form of established human settlements. Permanent settlements would have coincided with a greater amount of disposable food and would have created a barrier between wild and anthropogenic canine populations.
In 2013 Thalmann, Krause and coworkers revised the view that dog ancestors came from East Asia and showed using DNA analysis that “all dogs living today go back to four genetic lineages, all of which originate in Europe.” Their data indicated that bonding between humans and dog occurred between 19,000 and 30,000 years ago, likely in the context of hunting.
The Zarzian culture, an archaeological culture of late Paleolithic and Mesolithic [18,000-8,000 years BC] in Iraq, Iran, Central Asia is associated with remains of the domesticated dog.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Dave Draper 2014